The ancient city of Pompeii was formed back in the 6th century BC Now it’s the ruins that UNESCO has inscribed on the World Heritage List.
The name Pompeii arose after the unification of five independent cities (pumpe - five). This is a more believable version. There is a legend according to which Hercules defeated the giant Gerion in a tough battle, and after that he solemnly walked around the city, celebrating the victory. From the ancient Greek language pumpe is a solemn, triumphal procession.
In those days, people believed in God, and believed that the gods control earthly cataclysms. Despite the fact that February 5, 62 AD e. there was a tremendous earthquake, which, perhaps, could be the impetus for the eruption of the volcano, people still continued to live in the city, worship the gods, and believing that misfortune would not happen to them. Yet the volcano erupted. It happened August 24, 79 A.D. Not only the city of Pompeii suffered, but also the nearby cities - Herculaneum, Stabia. The eruption was so strong that the ashes reached even the neighboring states - Egypt and Syria. About 20 thousand people lived in the city. Some managed to escape before the disaster, but many died. The exact number of victims is unknown, but the remains of the bodies were found far outside the city.
The city remained under a layer of ash for many centuries, until in 1592 Dominico Fontana (a famous architect of that time) did not stumble upon the city wall while laying a canal from the Sarno River. No one betrayed this wall of great importance, and only after about 100 years in the ruins of Pompeii they found a tablet with the inscription “Pompeii” carved on it. Even after this incident, no one could have imagined that this is an ancient city that has disappeared from the face of the earth. We concluded that this is the old villa of Pompey the Great.
And in 1748, the extraction of the ancient city began. Excavated Alcubierrewho was sure that this is the city of Stabia. Directly in the Pompeii themselves, only three excavations were made in different places. Alcubierre was a barbarian, and all the finds that, in his opinion, were of interest, he sent to the Naples Museum, and he simply destroyed the others. Many scientists protested, and the excavation ceased.
In 1760, new excavations began, led by F. Vega. They lasted until 1804. Whole 44 years Vega and his subordinates spent on the extraction of works of art. All finds were restored anew and removed very carefully. At this time, tourists have already begun to come here, so many monuments were not immediately transferred to museums, but left for visitors to the city of Pompeii, which had already become a museum.
Excavations continued in 1863. This time led them Giuseppe Fiorelli. It was he who discovered a huge number of voids under the layers of ash. This is nothing but the bodies of the inhabitants of the city. Filling these voids with gypsum, scientists completely reproduced casts of human bodies, even facial expressions.
Currently City - Pompeii Museum is 75% open, and scientists have yet to make new discoveries. Of course, I want to recall the famous picture of Karl Pavlovich Bryullov - “The last day of Pompeii».